Quadcopter Basics

Having attracted towards flying machines from my childhood, I always wanted to make a copter or some flying machine for myself. So I decided to learn some basics for building one. I went through some stuff on the internet and found a Quadcopter would be cool !

In here let us see what a quadcopter is and its basics. There are different models of quadcopters. But to begin with let us see a simple model.The below image shows one.

Basically a Quadcopter is a quadrotor helicopter that is lifted and propelled by four rotors. Unlike helicopters they use symmetrically pitched blades. Control of vehicle motion is achieved by altering the pitch and/or rotation rate of one or more rotor discs, thereby changing its torque load and thrust/lift characteristics. Check the image below for the principle behind the quad’s motion.

As you can see, the motors 1 and 4 rotate in CW direction while 3 and 2 rotate CCW thus creating a downward thrust which lifts the quad. By varying the speed of the 4 rotors various movements are possible. There are three important terms mentioned above namely the YAW , ROLL and PITCH which we must have a clear concept of before understanding the quad’s movement.

Here Yaw = Rudder , Roll = Aileron and Pitch = Elevator. Having these in mind, Look at the following image to get knowledge of the various motions of the quadcopter.

Check the notes section of the above image for the motor control mechanism for particular movement of quad.

Having done with the basic quad’s principle and movement, Lets us see what are the basic parts necessary to construct a quadcopter.

Frame :

This is the most basic and important part of the quadcopter. You can mount your brushless motors, power cells and other electronic equipement on it easily. You can even create your own frame. Just make sure your frame is firm and stable.

Brushless Motors :

Brushless motors are commonly used in RC. Brushless motors have three wires. These wires control the motor’s three phases. When connecting the motor to it’s ESC (Electronic Speed Controller), it doesn’t actually matter how you connect the wires to let it spin because you want two motors to rotate CW and other two to rotate CCW. So it is just by trail and error method you fix these wires.

Electronic Speed Controller (ESC) :

The three-phased brushless motor are controlled by the Electronic Speed Controller (ESC). The ESC has three pairs of wires: current supply(2 thick) / motor wires (3 thick) / controller wire (3 small).

Propellers :

For your quadcopter, you’ll need a equal numbers of CW (clowckwise) and CCW (counter-clockwise) propellers. This will ensure that your copter will not spin around.

Control Board :

A multicopter control board is the essential part of your multicopter. It’s the heart of the copter and controls the motor’s independently and corrects for equal balancing.

Transmitter and Receiver :

You will need a transmitter and a receiver to control you copter. There are a wide variety of channels of transmitter available. Four channels is enough for a multicopter in general.

Batteries : Lithium Polymer batteries are used for powering your multicopter. LiPo batteries are available in wide range. The one that fits your need can be used.

So that is all you need to create a Quadcopter. I’m will post the construction of my quad as soon as I complete it. 🙂 Check Videos of quadcopter on Youtube. There are various stunts that can be performed with these 😀


About Sri

An Electronics Engineer by profession. But as a hobbyist I'm drawn towards various topics which is what this blog is all about. :)


35 thoughts on “Quadcopter Basics

  1. nice design ,the quadcopter looks interesting ,i had a question the controller board you are using is it a KK board ?I am also from India and wanted to know from where did you bought it ?

    Posted by Sumit | June 19, 2012, 5:39 pm
  2. boss can u please help me in the circuit board it is a bit confussion ,what are the components should be used pin that pcb

    Posted by dinesh | September 5, 2012, 11:27 am
  3. I NEED MORE BASIC ABOUT QUADCOPTER & what is gyro means,
    give some idea how to start this project

    Posted by rajesh | September 22, 2012, 3:12 am
  4. Which chip is used here??

    Posted by Anubhav | September 23, 2012, 11:55 am
  5. which micro controller did you use for your quadcopter?

    Posted by krishnendhu | January 6, 2013, 2:09 pm
  6. More grease to your elbow on this project. Thanx

    Posted by Adam | April 26, 2013, 11:48 am
  7. hi, i wanna start doing a quad..could u please list out the components i need?

    Posted by revanth | May 12, 2013, 10:37 am
  8. Hello would you mind stating which blog platform you’re working with?

    I’m looking to start my own blog soon but I’m
    having a difficult time making a decision between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.

    The reason I ask is because your layout seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something
    unique. P.S Sorry for being off-topic but I had
    to ask!

    Posted by cheap quadcopter | January 26, 2014, 8:30 am
  9. I want to make my own quadcopter and use its for image processing can you please tell me the complete list of parts like average quadcopter with camera use for video signal and image processing.
    please give the complete list or each every parts of quad like moter type price, frame, ESC, etc…

    reply as soon as possible.

    Posted by jitendra kumar sharma | April 9, 2014, 1:11 pm
  10. i chack it i would very so much like this copter

    Posted by jayan | May 20, 2014, 7:23 pm
  11. did u write any code for it’s operation ! r will it b dumped during buildup

    Posted by sai teja | August 28, 2014, 4:19 pm
  12. nice. I want to pay the total cost for makeing this project.please send informstion on my email id

    Posted by jitendra kumar ram | September 10, 2014, 1:05 am
  13. Hi , im intrested to built a quardcoper. Im a beginer , i want to know the basic things of quardcoper. Where should i get all theories clearly , can you send any link for theories.

    Posted by Raghu Varan | September 18, 2014, 11:04 am
    • Before getting into a build.. i would really advise you to buy a basic Drone like the SYMA X5C or a Hubsan X4 107c and learn to fly. despite what you may have heard to the contrrary, theyre not simple to pilot, and you WILL crash,… heavily. A cheapie to start will treach you how to control and fly , and theyre easily repaired when you inevitably damage them. There’s a lot to learn before building one – Battery technology alone concerning LiPo’s isn’t just a case of plug and play — there’s a steep learning curve to go through, but it can be accomplished quickly. For under £75 you can get equipped with some spare props, batteries and motors, including the drone itself, and do the learning bit first. It’ll save you an awful lot of grief and cost in the long run.

      Posted by Martyn | April 28, 2015, 3:09 pm
  14. please post the next how to make . Plz soon….

    Posted by shaik | January 16, 2015, 8:02 pm
  15. please all information in hindi

    Posted by harish | February 1, 2015, 8:58 pm
  16. Where I can purchase these parts? Here anyone had assembled? How much Total Cost you met?

    Posted by rJafar.pp | March 19, 2015, 3:18 pm
  17. getting a bit off-route. wanna build up a rc plane. i think most of the components r same as q-copter. can any1 hlp me wth d basics ?

    Posted by Shilajeet Sengupta | April 17, 2015, 11:17 am
  18. actually i also want to make this so from where do i get this material .but from internet..plz can u tell me

    Posted by aditya | May 8, 2015, 10:53 pm
  19. Please give me the whole procedure or mechanism of FLY COPTER with some pictures that can shows the construction of a FLY COPTER ,please send me this on my email ,I’m freaiy about this so it’s a request .

    Posted by ASHSIH SINGH | May 18, 2015, 4:33 pm
  20. Please also send me the whole mechanism of control board of FLY COPTER for the construction of this on my email !”

    Posted by ASHSIH SINGH | May 18, 2015, 4:39 pm
  21. hello sir this is saurav i am in 10 and i am very intrested in such things . I am havin some quaries such as in wich combination i should connect the motors parralaly or in serease and can i use the controlling chip and the remote from a rc car . please tell me something more about it Iwill be thankfull yo you . thankyou sir

    Posted by saurav | July 19, 2015, 12:24 pm
  22. Broo itz an awesome description of quada n I m sure it will be very helpful #4 me for my next event…but now I need itz construction also…itzz request from you to plzz contact me:8302391060
    I”ll be very thankful to u

    Posted by Sajid | February 1, 2016, 3:15 pm
  23. hiii is it possible with 8051microcontroller??

    Posted by pathar hardik | July 18, 2016, 11:56 pm


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